The 21st Century Text Style Guide

To accommodate the changes in contemporary English we have developed our own style guide. The conventions we have adopted and present here reflect decisions we have made that balance existing standards with international English as commonly used today. In addition to describing how submissions are to be formatted for The 21st Century Text, we offer these style conventions in the hope that they offer other publications useful guidelines for presenting texts with clarity and consistency.

Please adhere to the following for manuscript preparation:

Abbreviations

Bibliography

Fonts

Formatting Page and Text

Numbers

Punctuation

Quotations

References

Spelling and Proper Names


Abbreviations

  • Abbreviations should be defined in parentheses the first time they appear in the text.

Bibliography

Fonts

  • Use Bold for emphasis and titles.
  • Font: 12-point font for body of text; preferred font: Georgia.
  • Italics: use for foreign words and titles of books, journals, and articles.

Formatting Page and Text

  • Header: at the top left corner of each page, state name of author, title, date.
  • Headings: level One bold, e.g., Section One; Title; Capitalize first letter of main words in title; 14-point font. Level Two: Underline, e.g., This is the sub-section on epiphany, 12-point font.
  • Length: up to 4,000 words.
  • Line Spacing: double-space body of text. Single space references.
  • Margins:  top and bottom: 2.54 cm. (1 in.); left and right: 3.18 cm. (1.25 in.).
  • Text: indent paragraphs.

Numbers

  • Numbering: Arabic numerals, no parentheses, period after each number, e.g., 2.
  • Units of measurement (meters, inches, miles, kilometers): both metric and English units are acceptable as long as they are used consistently throughout       the article; the equivalent form must be provided in parentheses.

Punctuation

Punctuation: according to The Chicago Manual of Style.

Lists (including those containing bullet points): no final punctuation; no capitals, no period after the last item.

Quotations

  • Block quotes selections of 40 words or more: indent left & right; justify text left and right; titles and headings left-justified. Single space.

 Example

 We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it (Founding Fathers 1976).

  • Quotes of less than 40 words should be contained in parentheses  and followed by terminal parentheses indicating source using the (Author Date) system.

Example

According to the Founding Fathers, “whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it” (Founding Fathers 1976), that is the governed. . .

References

  • For references, use The Chicago Manual of Style‘s format  (see examples below).
  • When quoting recurring items, do not use ibid/op. cit. but rather state name of author, title, page number, etc.
  • It is unnecessary to repeat the year if the author is quoted twice in the same paragraph.
  • Referencing Books

Single author:

Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

Two authors:

Ward, Geoffrey C. and Burns, Ken. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.

Three or more authors:

Ward, Geoffrey C., Burns, Ken, and Curwen, Robin.2013,  Higgins the Poet: Reflections on the Improbable. Amsterdam: Ottowa Press.

  • Referencing Journal Articles

Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104: 439–58.

  • Referencing Internet Sources

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

  • Reference Notes

For citations and brief points, use inline author date citations without commas.

Spacing

  • Follow all punctuation marks with a single space.

Spelling and Proper Names

  • Spelling: either American or British English spellings are acceptable, but be consistent within the manuscript.
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